Why early metastasis occurs and how to deal with precancerous blood diseases

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What is a precancer condition?
Bone marrow transplantation is a promising method of dealing with precancer
Why metastasis occurs before the main cancer

What is a precancer condition?

Pre-precancer or precancerous diseases is a condition that signals a high risk of developing cancer. If the body is completely healthy, then a malignant tumor does not occur in it. Often, its appearance is preceded by a disease called precancerous.

The process of degeneration of a normal cell into a malignant one takes place in several stages, which can be identified in the clinic after the examination:

Precancerous diseases1 – facultative precancer; It includes chronic diseases that rarely develop into cancer, but there are risks (gastritis, ulcerative colitis, papilloma, cervical erosion, Crohn's disease, etc.);
2 – obligate precancer; congenital and genetic pathologies, which tend to degenerate into cancer over time (organ and tissue dysplasia, in the event of which the stem cells do not fully develop);
3 – preinvasive cancer; the cancer process begins, but the tumor is located exclusively on the epithelium, not penetrating into the tissue;
4 – early invasive cancer (microcarcinoma); cancerous tumor that extends beyond the epithelium and germinates tissue by 3 mm.

Patients with pre-cancerous conditions are at high risk of developing cancer, so they are under medical supervision. Detection of precancerous disease does not mean that cancer will definitely occur. If the precancer is detected in time and treatment is given, then the risks are minimized. In modern medicine, there are already enough funds to combat these conditions, but scientists are not stopping and are working to create new ways to combat precancerous conditions. One of the latest achievements was the technique in which the human bone marrow is transplanted.

Bone marrow transplantation is a promising method of dealing with precancer

Bone marrow transplantation abroadResearch in the treatment of precancerous conditions is conducted in different countries of the world. Scientists from America managed to develop an innovative way to treat pre-cancerous diseases affecting the blood and bone marrow. The technique is to improve the quality indicators of blood cells in order to prevent their transformation into cancer.

In medicine, there is such a thing as "myelodysplasia syndrome", abbreviated MDS. This is a state of precancer, in which the functions of the bone marrow are disturbed – it produces healthy blood cells in small quantities. In the course of the research, scientists found out that excessive content of a specific protein in blood cells leads to the development of MDS. If you control its concentration, then you can avoid the development of acute myeloid leukemia (deadly blood cancer).

To such conclusions, scientists came after conducting research on mice in whose blood the permissible indicator of the content of a specific protein was exceeded. It weakens the function of blood cells and causes bone marrow failure. The data obtained is sufficient to begin work on the creation of effective methods by which doctors will be able to control the blood levels of the protein that causes MDS and carry out effective treatment abroad.

Why metastasis occurs before the main cancer

Metastases are called distant cancer foci that arise as a result of the spread of malignant cells of the main tumor throughout the body. Metastases can occur in people regardless of age, but the risk group consists of people in the age category of 50 years. Metastasis is characteristic of many cancers. Most often affects the lymph nodes, liver, lungs. More rarely – the skeletal system, central nervous system, kidneys and adrenal glands. In rare cases, the pancreas, skin, spleen, heart muscle, and skeletal muscles are affected.

It is because of metastases that violate the functions of organs, most often there are deaths in cancer patients. If a patient has metastases, it means that the prognosis will be unfavorable, while doctors are limited in their choice of treatment methods. When metastases affect the entire body, the patient has virtually no chance of successfully combating the disease.

Metastases and their treatment abroadAccording to statistics, about five percent of cancer patients face metastases at a stage when cancer cells only appear in the body, and the malignant tumor has not yet formed. American and German scientists conducted studies to find out the cause of the early appearance of metastases.

For the study were selected laboratory mice with breast cancer. In 80% of mice, metastases were identified, the source of which were early malignant cells. In other words, the main tumor has not yet formed, and metastases have already been present in the body of mice. At the time when the primary tumor was diagnosed, multiple metastasis was observed in the body.

Scientists managed to figure out the mechanism of early metastasis. It turned out that the active development of breast cancer causes an excessive concentration of the HER2 protein, while the body lacks a gene that does not allow for the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. For this reason, a cancer cell at the nucleation stage is able to metastasize to tissues and organs.

Work in this direction continues. Now scientists face the challenge of creating a drug that will block metastases.

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