Diabetes mellitus is a disease that not only undermines health, but also complicates life by regular injections, makes a person dependent on insulin. Several times a day, patients are obliged to make painful injections in the abdominal area and always have on hand syringes or special pens with a supply of life-saving medication.
Insulin is a special hormone that, when ingested, normalizes blood sugar levels. Previously it was believed that the only effective way of delivering insulin to the human body is intramuscular injections, and oral intake of the drug is unacceptable, since the hormone is destroyed upon contact with gastric juice.
Now the population of the planet has witnessed a scientific breakthrough in the field of medicine, which can make life easier for thousands of patients. Scientists from Denmark, Sweden and the United States announced the creation of a capsule for the introduction of insulin directly through the walls of the stomach. Experimental tests carried out on piglets and mice proved that the capsule can penetrate into the walls of the stomach and supply the body with the necessary dose of medication.
Scientists have developed capsules to replace insulin injections.
Capsule – a miracle of engineering. The shell consists of two separate chambers: the bottom one, made of stainless steel and weighted, with a small hole at the base, and the top one – light, made of medical polymer material.
Inside the spring and a small piston with a container filled with a dose of insulin, the spring is cocked and held in a charged state using caramelized sucrose. Thanks to its streamlined shape and a specific weighting agent, the capsule is able to occupy the required position.
When ingested by its own gravity, the capsule is lowered to the bottom of the stomach with a hole down. From exposure to heat, after some time, sucrose around the adductor mechanism dissolves, and the needle on the piston of the biodegradable polymer enters the wall with force, releasing a dose of the hormone, which in a few seconds enters the blood. After performing the main function, the capsule is removed from the gastrointestinal system in a natural way.
More than three hundred experiments carried out on the swine stomach confirmed: the capsule is always turned over with a weighted part down and embedded exclusively in the upper layer of the mucous membrane. The inner layers of the epidermis do not suffer.
In addition to developing methods for administering insulin by mouth, scientists continue to look for ways to take blood without pain to measure glucose levels. Today, patients have to use blood glucose meters, which are not very convenient and quite painful.
Reference to the study: An ingestible system for oral delivery of macromolecules.