A piezo-electric generator designed to convert heartbeats into electricity for a pacemaker.

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The heart is the motor of the human body, which in one minute pumps up to 30 liters of blood supplying the organs with vital oxygen. If the work of the heart is suddenly disturbed, the only way out is a pacemaker. To normalize high or low heart rate is a piezoelectric generator.

Stimulation of the heart
Disadvantages of a conventional pacemaker
Piezoelectric generator
Principle of operation

Stimulation of the heart muscle

The causes of heart rhythm disorders are different:

aging;
past infectious diseases;
the formation of scar tissue due to myocardial infarction;
hereditary or congenital heart defects.

The heart pacemaker is a special electronic device that creates small discharges, stimulating the work of the heart muscle. The device is used for bradycardia, tachycardia, and some types of heart failure.

A conventional pacemaker is a lithium battery powered generator. From the device through the veins to the heart are special electrodes, which receive impulses to the heart muscle. The electrostimulator is sutured to the patient under the skin in the area of ​​the clavicle.

Disadvantages of a conventional pacemaker

The disadvantage of using a conventional pacemaker is that batteries that support device operation wear out quickly. The power source must be changed with a frequency of 7–8 years. The electrostimulator is short-lived: should be replaced 10–12 years after installation.

The operation to replace or install is simple (it lasts only 1-2 hours and is performed under local anesthesia), but there are often cases of complications after the intervention:

arrhythmia;
infection;
bleeding;

pneumothorax;
puncture of the lung or artery.

The risk of surgery is justified, but I would like to avoid unnecessary intervention in the body.

Piezo Electric Generator for Pacemaker

To reduce the number of surgical interventions and extend the life of pacemakers, American physicians and engineers have developed the first piezoelectric generator. The mechanism will allow in the near future to create a pacemaker, which does not need batteries for recharging.

The piezoelectric generator will be attached directly to the electrostimulator. His task is to process heartbeats into electrical impulses, feeding them a pacemaker, so that the device does not need to replace the batteries.

American scientists went the other way, proposing to fasten a piezoelectric strip not in the heart, but near the pacemaker, under the skin. Additional electrodes for transferring the received charges will not be required: the pulses and the received energy will be transmitted through one electrode connected to the heart.

The principle of operation of the piezoelectric generator

The generator is a small strip, in the core of which there are special layers of polyvinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene, making up porous and solid gaskets, bonded with gold electrodes, one of which is covered with polyimide.

For a more efficient conversion of mechanical energy from the contraction of the muscles of the heart into electrical energy capable of feeding the pacemaker, the strip is placed near the electrode of the pacemaker so that its two ends protrude. In order to avoid contact of fabrics with materials, the strip is placed in the middle of a special flexible tube, which is easily compressed, allowing the generator to mechanically act.

The tests have shown that when the oscillator acts on 1 hertz, which corresponds to the strength of the myocardium, the generator produces a current of 0.5 volts, which is equal to the current strength of 43 nanoamperes. According to the scientists, the current strength is easy to increase – it is enough to weight the protruding ends of the strip with a special weight.

Link to the study: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.

. (tagsToTranslate) pacemaker generator heart cardiac piezoelectric electrode electrostimulator muscle

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